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Cover photograph by Ian Stapleton. ISBN 0 0 0 1. Cultural property - Protection Australia. Historic sites - Australia Conservation and restoration. Historic buildings - Australia - Conservation and restoration. Monuments - Australia Conservation and restoration. ICOMOS is primarily concerned with the philosophy, terminology, methodology and techniques of cultural heritage conservation.
The 5, members of ICOMOS include architects, town planners, demographers, archaeologists, geographers, historians, conservators, anthropologists and heritage administrators. Members in the 84 countries belonging to ICOMOS are formed into National Committees and participate in a range of conservation projects, research work, intercultural exchanges and cooperative activities.
The members meet triennially in a General Assembly. The Burra Charter was first adopted in at the historic South Australian mining town of Burra; minor revisions were made in and These have yet to be revised to accord with the Charter, but are included here for completeness. Australia ICOMOS plans to update them with the aim of completing a consistent suite of documents when the Charter itself is next reviewed.
To assist those familiar with previous versions of the Charter, this booklet also contains some notes explaining the key changes made and a conversion table relating articles in the Charter to those of the previous version. It elects an Executive Committee of 15 members, which is responsible for carrying out national programs and participating in decisions of ICOMOS as an international organisation.
Australia ICOMOS acts as a national and international link between public authorities, institutions and individuals involved in the study and conservation of all places of cultural significance. Australia ICOMOS members participate in a range of conservation activities including site visits, training, conferences and meetings. Important Note The version of the Burra Charter has now been superseded and joins the and versions as archival documents recording the development of conservation philosophy in Australia.
Revisions were adopted on 23 February , 23 April and 26 November The Burra Charter provides guidance for the conservation and management of places of cultural significance cultural heritage places , and is based on the knowledge and experience of Australia ICOMOS members. Conservation is an integral part of the management of places of cultural significance and is an ongoing responsibility.
What places does the Charter apply to? The Charter can be applied to all types of places of cultural significance including natural, indigenous and historic places with cultural values.
The standards of other organisations may also be relevant. Why conserve? Who is the Charter for? The Charter sets a standard of practice for those who provide advice, make decisions about, or undertake works to places of cultural significance, including owners, managers and custodians. Using the Charter The Charter should be read as a whole.
Many articles are interdependent. Articles in the Conservation Principles section are often further developed in the Conservation Processes and Conservation Practice sections. Headings have been included for ease of reading but do not form part of the Charter. They are historical records, that are important as tangible expressions of Australian identity and experience.
Places of cultural significance reflect the diversity of our communities, telling us about who we are and the past that has formed us and the Australian landscape. They are irreplaceable and precious.
These places of cultural significance must be conserved for present and future generations. The Burra Charter advocates a cautious approach to change: do as much as necessary to care for the place and to make it useable, but otherwise change it as little as possible so that its cultural significance is retained. Definitions For the purposes of this Charter: 1.
The concept of place should be broadly interpreted. The elements described in Article 1. The term cultural significance is synonymous with heritage significance and cultural heritage value. Cultural significance is embodied in the place itself, its fabric, setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects. Cultural significance may change as a result of the continuing history of the place.
Understanding of cultural significance may change as a result of new information. Fabric means all the physical material of the place including components, fixtures, contents, and objects.
Fabric includes building interiors and subsurface remains, as well as excavated material. Fabric may define spaces and these may be important elements of the significance of the place. Repair involves restoration or reconstruction. It is recognised that all places and their components change over time at varying rates. New material may include recycled material salvaged from other places. This should not be to the detriment of any place of cultural significance. Such a use involves no, or minimal, impact on cultural significance.
Associations may include social or spiritual values and cultural responsibilities for a place. Meanings generally relate to intangible aspects such as symbolic qualities and memories. Interpretation may be a combination of the treatment of the fabric e. Conservation Principles Article 2. Conservation and management 2. Article 3. Cautious approach 3. It requires a cautious approach of changing as much as necessary but as little as possible.
The traces of additions, alterations and earlier treatments to the fabric of a place are evidence of its history and uses which may be part of its significance. Conservation action should assist and not impede their understanding. Article 4. Knowledge, skills and techniques 4. In some circumstances modern techniques and materials which offer substantial conservation benefits may be appropriate. The Burra Charter, The use of modern materials and techniques must be supported by firm scientific evidence or by a body of experience.
Values 5. Conservation of places with natural significance is explained in the Australian Natural Heritage Charter. This Charter defines natural significance to mean the importance of ecosystems, biological diversity and geodiversity for their existence value, or for present or future generations in terms of their scientific, social, aesthetic and lifesupport value.
A cautious approach is needed, as understanding of cultural significance may change. This article should not be used to justify actions which do not retain cultural significance. Article 6. Burra Charter process 6. Understanding cultural significance comes first, then development of policy and finally management of the place in accordance with the policy. The Burra Charter process, or sequence of investigations, decisions and actions, is illustrated in the accompanying flowchart.
Article 7. Use 7. The policy should identify a use or combination of uses or constraints on uses that retain the cultural significance of the place.
New use of a place should involve minimal change, to significant fabric and use; should respect associations and meanings; and where appropriate should provide for continuation of practices which contribute to the cultural significance of the place.
Article 8. Setting Conservation requires the retention of an appropriate visual setting and other relationships that contribute to the cultural significance of the place. New construction, demolition, intrusions or other changes which would adversely affect the setting or relationships are not appropriate. Other relationships, such as historical connections, may contribute to interpretation, appreciation, enjoyment or experience of the place.
Location 9. A building, work or other component of a place should remain in its historical location. Relocation is generally unacceptable unless this is the sole practical means of ensuring its survival.
Provided such buildings, works or other components do not have significant links with their present location, removal may be appropriate. Such action should not be to the detriment of any place of cultural significance.
Article Contents Contents, fixtures and objects which contribute to the cultural significance of a place should be retained at that place. Their removal is unacceptable unless it is: the sole means of ensuring their security and preservation; on a temporary basis for treatment or exhibition; for cultural reasons; for health and safety; or to protect the place.
Such contents, fixtures and objects should be returned where circumstances permit and it is culturally appropriate. Related places and objects The contribution which related places and related objects make to the cultural significance of the place should be retained. Participation Conservation, interpretation and management of a place should provide for the participation of people for whom the place has special associations and meanings, or who have social, spiritual or other cultural responsibilities for the place.
Co-existence of cultural values Co-existence of cultural values should be recognised, respected and encouraged, especially in cases where they conflict. For some places, conflicting cultural values may affect policy development and management decisions.
In this article, the term cultural values refers to those beliefs which are important to a cultural group, including but not limited to political, religious, spiritual and moral beliefs. This is broader than values associated with cultural significance. Conservation processes Conservation may, according to circumstance, include the processes of: retention or reintroduction of a use; retention of associations and meanings; maintenance, preservation, restoration, reconstruction, adaptation and interpretation; and will commonly include a combination of more than one of these.
There may be circumstances where no action is required to achieve conservation.
1328546978The Burra Charter
1328546978The Burra Charter
The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance