Assignments Autism, traumatic and acquired brain injury Hardman, M. Human exceptionality: School, community, and family 12th ed. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning Were the desired freedoms won? What methods had it employed to best effect? Which strategies were most effective, and why?
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For some of you, this book is the beginning of your journey into the past, present, and future of people who are exceptional. It is a journey about those with diverse needs, desires, interests, backgrounds, characteristics, and lifestyles. What does the word exceptional mean to you? Who or what influenced your knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward people, and the words you use to describe them? That is, understanding human exceptionality is to understand ourselves.
Our journey into the lives of people with differences begins with four chapters that encompass the life span in family, school, and community living, moving through the early childhood years into elementary school and on to adolescence, high school, and the challenging transition to becoming an adult with disabilities in a complex and changing world. From the origins of special education to the Individuals with Disabilities Act, we examine the critical distinction between schooling for the privileged and the right of every child to a free and appropriate education.
Characteristics of effective special education practice are discussed, including the hallmarks of the field individualization, intensive instruction, and the explicit teaching of skills , as well as the critical elements of appropriate instruction, including multitiered systems of support Response to Intervention , universal design for learning, access to the general education curriculum, and greater accountability for student achievement.
Power Point Slides: Ch. Test Bank, ExamView: Ch. Observe your service learning placement. What model of service delivery, undifferentiated or individually referenced, is employed? What reasons do you think are behind the selection of service delivery models? Focus 2 Identify the principal issues in the right-to-education cases that led to the eventual passage of the national mandate to educate students with disabilities.
Focus 5 Identify three principles that are intended to assure that schools across the nation are accountable for student learning. Today, many nations are acknowledging the importance of an education for these children as a critical factor in promoting independence in family and community settings. The view that children with disabilities should be excluded from school is being replaced with the call to provide an educational opportunity for every child. Salamanca Statement affirms that: 1.
Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities, and learning needs. Education systems should be designed, and educational programs should be implemented to take into account the wide diversity of characteristics and needs.
Those with special educational needs must have access to regular [general education] schools that should accommodate them within a child-centered instructional program. Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all. Early Special Education Programs i.
Education as a Privilege but Not a Right i. From to , most states merely allowed for special education; they did not mandate it. Educational services to children with mild emotional disorders e. Special classes for children with physical disabilities expanded in the s; separate schools for these children became very popular during the late s, with specially designed elevators, ramps, and modified doors, toilets, and desks.
For the most part, children with disabilities continued to be educated in a school setting that isolated them from peers without disabilities. Early research resulted in the development of a new model mainstreaming in which a child could remain in the general class program for the majority, if not all, of the school day, receiving special education when and where it was needed. John F. The s brought significant changes in the education of students with disabilities.
President John F. Kennedy expanded the role of the U. Education was reaffirmed as a right and not a privilege by the Supreme Court in the case of Brown v. Topeka, Kansas, Board of Education Although usually heralded for striking down racial segregation, this decision also set a major precedent for the education of students with disabilities.
Yet, it was nearly 20 years later before federal courts confronted the issue of a free and appropriate education for these students. The s have often been described as a decade of revolution in the education of students with disabilities. Many of the landmark cases were brought before the courts to address the right to education for students with disabilities.
Additionally, major pieces of state and federal legislation were enacted to reaffirm the right of students with disabilities to a free public education. In , P. In addition P. Referred to as the zero exclusion principle, IDEA requires that all students with disabilities receive at public expense the special education and related services necessary to meet their individual needs.
Special education means specially designed instruction provided at no cost to parents in all settings, including the workplace and training centers. Related services include special transportation and other support services necessary for a student to benefit from their special education program. For a student to receive the specialized services available under the IDEA the student must meet two criteria: 1.
The student must be identified as having one of the disability conditions identified in the federal law or in corresponding state rules and regulations, and 2.
The student must demonstrate a need for special education and related services. Schools must provide special education and related services at no cost to parents. Nondiscriminatory and Multidisciplinary Assessment 1. The testing of students in their native or primary language, whenever possible 2. The use of evaluation procedures selected and administered to prevent cultural or racial discrimination 3.
Validation of assessment tools for the purpose for which they are being used 4. Assessment by a team of school professionals using, several pieces of information to formulate a placement decision iii. Parental Safeguards and Involvement 1. To give consent in writing as to the educational setting in which the child will receive special education and related services 3. To participate on the committee that considers the assessment of, placement of, and programming for the child 6.
To inspect and review educational records and challenge information believed to be inaccurate, misleading, or in violation of the privacy or other rights of the child 7. The individualized education program IEP is a written statement that is the framework for delivering a free and appropriate public education to every eligible student with a disability. The IEP provides an opportunity for parents and professionals to join together in developing and delivering specially designed instruction to meet student needs.
The purpose of the IEP process is to ensure continuity in the delivery of special education services and supports for each student on a daily and annual basis. To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular [general] education environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
Phase I - Initiating the Referral—This process can begin at different times for different students. A focus on student achievement as the primary measure of school success ii. An emphasis on challenging academic standards that specify the knowledge and skills students should acquire and the levels at which they should demonstrate these skills in getting ready for college or beginning a career iii. A desire to extend the standards to all students, including those for whom expectations have been traditionally low U.
Schools must provide supports and services to two groups of students with disabilities. One group qualifies for special education services under IDEA because their disability limits their access to an appropriate education.
Another group, not viewed as educationally limited by their disability and therefore ineligible for special education, are protected against discrimination under Section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA. Over the last four decades, national policy in the United States has reaffirmed the rights of students with disabilities who are eligible for special education services to a free and appropriate public education FAPE.
Although there is considerable agreement with the intent of IDEA to improve student learning, the means to achieve the goal are controversial. Clearly, research is needed to directly support or refute the assumption within national policy that a standards-based education system will improve results for all students, including those with disabilities.
Without such evidence, educators will continue to operate in a vacuum of opinion. Finally, it will be critical that all general and special educators have the knowledge and skills to work collaboratively in partnership with families to provide an education experience that consistently reflects the stated value of an education for all.
Early special education programs were offered primarily in segregated classrooms. Instruct students to research and write a report on the availability and nature of services available to students with significant and severe disabilities in the early and middle of the twentieth century. Have students address how various psychological perspectives on disability have resulted in changes in the educational opportunities for individuals with exceptionalities.
A number of court cases have had a significant impact on the provision of educational services to individuals with exceptionalities. Divide the class into groups and instruct them to create a presentation about the facts that framed the case, the courts findings, and how the findings have impacted special education services.
In order to receive special education services a student must meet two criteria: identification as having one of the thirteen recognized disabling conditions and demonstration of a need for special education services.
Divide the class into thirteen groups and have them research and prepare a brief report on one of the disability conditions recognized under IDEA. IDEA is based on the value that every student can learn. Lead the class in a discussion about their own beliefs on who can and cannot learn, and what barriers exist to learning in the educational and social structure in America today.
IDEA mandated that children with disabilities receive a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. To meet this mandate, schools have developed services ranging from placement in general education classrooms to homebound and hospital programs.
Inclusionists believe that students being prepared to live in the community should be educated in that community with their peers. Have each student write an editorial or letter to the editor, arguing a personal position on the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education settings.
Ask students to gather information concerning the special education services available in their communities. Where are students with various types of disabilities educated? An individualized education program IEP provides an opportunity for parents and professionals to join together in designing a program that meets the individual needs of each student. Show the class examples of IEPs. Since students in general education are often provided instruction as if they learn at the same pace and in the same manner, have class members discuss whether individualizing instruction for general education students would be beneficial, as well.
How could this be achieved, considering the number of students in a regular classroom and the variability from one student to the next? For example, students who do not succeed on standardized tests not only face another failure, but also may find themselves stigmatized for lowering school norms. Also, higher standards of school behavior may result in students with behavior disorders being suspended, expelled, and pushed out of school.
Instruct students to form cooperative groups and develop a list of problems or issues that should be addressed to ensure that all students are included in the current reform movement. For example, how will student performance be measured? With an emphasis on higher academic standards, will alternatives developed through IEPs be decreased? How will the nonacademic transition goals of many secondary students with disabilities be handled with increased coursework in academic subject areas?
Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family
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MICHAEL L HARDMAN