Once there, Mr. Eusebio placed his son under the tutorship of Leon Vasquez who taught him civil law , criminal procedure and Notaries. Francisco now had access to a library where he learned French, which in turn, allowed him to familiarize himself with the works of Montesquieu , the social contract of Jean-Jacques Rousseau , the French Revolution , the history of Europe , as well as the biographies of the Greek and Roman leaders. This dedication and spirit of improvement took Francisco to occasionally excel in his hometown, where he even represented the interest of some people before the colonial courts.

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Once there, Mr. Eusebio placed his son under the tutorship of Leon Vasquez who taught him civil law , criminal procedure and Notaries. Francisco now had access to a library where he learned French, which in turn, allowed him to familiarize himself with the works of Montesquieu , the social contract of Jean-Jacques Rousseau , the French Revolution , the history of Europe , as well as the biographies of the Greek and Roman leaders. This dedication and spirit of improvement took Francisco to occasionally excel in his hometown, where he even represented the interest of some people before the colonial courts.

Lastiri belonged to one of the wealthiest families in province of Honduras. Her father was the Spanish trader Juan Miguel Lastiri, who played an important part in the commercial development of Tegucigalpa.

Her mother was Margarita Lozano, member of a powerful Creole family in the city. Upon his death, she inherited a fortune. He died in at age He died in Tegucigalpa in Such activities allowed him to acquire a great knowledge of the structure and operation of the public administration of the province. This job also allowed him to get in close contact with the problems of post-colonial society. The members of the Interim Advisory Board, after reviewing the issue, stated they were not empowered nor deputized to decide on this matter, but suggested forums be held in different cities to hear the views of the people, and thus explore their willingness to go forward with the proposal.

The question of annexation to Mexico caused divisions within each of the provinces as some cities were in favor and others against. But Tegucigalpa , the second most important city of the province, strongly opposed it. Tinoco then decided to take repressive actions against the authorities of that city. He was appointed captain of one of the companies, by decision of the organizers of the militias.

The annexation to the Mexican Empire was short-lived, with the collapse of the Mexican Empire and the subsequent creation of the Federal Republic of Central America on April 1, That same commission determined the electoral districts, district boards and the departmental boards of the Federal Republic. In the following year, the Constituent Congress of Central America met in Guatemala City, to decide which system of government to adopt for the young nation.

In debates two different proposals emerged. The Liberal Party wanted a federalist government, similar to that of the United States of This type of government would provide every state significant autonomy of self-administration, freedom to create its own laws and reforms, among other things, but always under the supervision of the federal government, keeper of the constitution.

The Conservatives on the other hand, wanted a centralist government. In this system, the decisions and laws adopted by the central government would apply equally to all the other states. After debating the proposals, the Liberal majority prevailed, and the federalist system was adopted.

For this reason, the National Assembly had called for new elections in Honduras, but Herrera had ignored this decree and remained in power. Their plan was to return, and to liberate the state capital. Vidaurre convinced him that, in that country, he could find the military support he needed to expel Milla from Honduran territory. Milla and few of his officers survived and fled the scene of battle.

As in Honduras, Salvadoreans opposed the new congressmen and other government officials elected by the decree issued on October 10, They demanded their restitution, but President Manuel Arce argued that this move was necessary to re-establish the constitutional order.

El Salvador responded by attempting to take-over the federal government through military force. President Arce, however, defeated the Salvadorean army in Arrazola on March 23, He then ordered 2, federal troops under the command of General Manuel de Arzu to occupy El Salvador. This event marked the beginning of the civil war.

This group of militants, known as the "Army Protector of the Law", was composed of small groups of Hondurans, Nicaraguans, and Salvadoreans, who brought their own tools of war; others had the support of Indians who served as infantry. Some volunteers continued his liberal convictions, others worked for a political leader, others simply hoped to get something for their efforts after the war ended.

I could not go back under these circumstances It was no longer possible to continue the march, without serious danger, a vast plain and the very presence of the enemy. Less I could defend myself in the ranch, placed under a height of more than feet It was therefore necessary to accept the battle with all the advantages reached by the enemy I ordered the hunters to advance over the enemy to stop their movement While the force rose by a slope and narrow path, fire broke out But inexperienced soldiers made impotent for quarter of an hour, the repeated attacks by the bulk of the enemy.

The enthusiasm that produced in all the soldiers the heroism of these brave Hondurans, exceeded the number of the enemy. When the action became general on both sides, our right wing was forced to back down. And occupied the light artillery that supported it. But the reserve working on that side, re-established our line, recovered the artillery and ended the action The Salvadorans assistants This prompted Arzu to leave Col.

On September 20, Gen. Arzu feigning illness returned to Guatemala, leaving his forces under the command of lieutenant colonel Antonio de Aycinena. On October 9 Aycinena was forced to surrender.

He asked the government of El Salvador to provide 4, men, but had to settle for 2, When he was in position to act in early , he sent a division commanded by Juan Prem to enter Guatemalan territory and to take control of Chiquimula. The order was carried out by Prem in spite of the resistance offered by the enemy. Gutierrez to force the enemy out of their trenches and to cause the defection of their troops. He changed his course of action and went after Gutierrez.

Military operations on the capital began with small skirmishes in front of government fortifications. A strong division of federal troops followed him from the capital under the command of Col. But Pacheco spread his forces, leaving some of them in Sumpango.

Military operations continued, with great success for the allied army. Immediately thereafter President Arce, Mariano Aycinena, Mariano Beltranena, and all the officials who had had some role in the war were sent to prison. After these events, the General ran the country dictatorially, until senator Juan Barrundia took over on June 25, He was inaugurated on September In his inaugural speech he declared: "The sovereign people send me, to place myself, in the most dangerous of their destinies.

I must obey and fulfill, the solemn oath that I have just rendered. I offer, to uphold the Federal Constitution, which I defended as a soldier and as a citizen. The General was now in position to advance his liberal reforms. Through them, he attempted to dismantle what he felt were archaic Spanish institutions, [24] and to give to his people a society based upon general education, religious liberty and social and political equality.

They oversaw the building of schools and roads, enacted free trade policies, invited foreign capital and immigrants, allowed secular marriage and divorce and freedom of speech, tried to make public lands available to the expanding cochineal economy, separated church from state, abolished tithes , proclaimed religious liberties, confiscated church property, suppressed religious orders, and removed education from church control, [24] among other policies.

All of this new approved legislation struck a blow at the heart of the Guatemalan oligarchy. But more importantly, it stripped the Spanish clergy of their privileges, and curtailed their power.

According to historian Mary Wilhelmine Williams: "The immediate reasons for the different enactments varied. Some laws were intended to protect the state from the clergy They used their influence against him and the Liberal Party during the civil war. They also had opposed the reforms, particularly those in the interest of general education which the Liberals were determined to push.

From that point forward, rumors about the need to reform the constitution began. According to the constitution, elections needed to be held in order to elect the next president of the Republic. Valle, however, died before taking office. Most historians agree that had he lived, he might have brought conciliation and harmony between the opposing forces Liberals and Conservatives.

On February 14, End of the federation[ edit ] By Central America became five independent small nations In February there occurred in Central America a series of events that ignited a revolution that culminated with the fall of the Federation.

An epidemic of cholera scourged Guatemala leaving approximately people dead and infected with the bacteria. The epidemic struck especially the poor and the Indians in the highlands of the state. At the time when it appeared, the Indians of the district of Mita, influenced by their priests, were much perturbed over the system of trial by jury incomprehensible to them which was being introduced.

But these measures were of little help because the Indians continued to die. The local priests spread the rumor that the government had poisoned the rivers and streams for the purpose of wiping out the indigenous population, and repopulating it with foreigners. In proof, they pointed to a recent grant of territory in Vera Paz made to a British colonization company. A cry was then raised by the frantic Indians against their supposed murderers. The governor sent an army to try to stop the revolt.

Carrera was an illiterate, [2] but shrewd and charismatic swineherd turned highwayman, whom the rebels wanted as their leader. They devised various tricks to favor the delusion, which were heralded as miracles. A letter was let down from the roof of one of the churches, in the midst of a vast congregation of Indians, which was supposed to come from the Virgin Mary, commissioning Carrera to lead a revolt against the government. Encouraged by these events the conservatives joined in.

Galvez had relinquished power, Congress tried to restore some life to the Federal Government by transferring control of their custom revenues. But Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica opposed this move and used it as an opportunity to leave the union.

Carrera called on the Salvadorian people to rise against their government.



Lucho denodadamentecintra todos aquellos a los que consideraba enemigos de su ideal y de la patria grande. Fue un orador, escritor, military estadista centroamericano, miembro del partido liberal presidente de la Republica Federal de Centroamerica , Jefe del estado de Honduras , Guatemala Bautizado en la Iglesia de san Miguel de Tegucigalpa, el 16 de octubre de Se adhiere al Acta de Independencia el 29 de Septiembre de En abril de fue comisionado para brindar seguridad a la columna que trae , No tuvo Cuando tuve en mis ojos para


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